The Act defines ‘Lopping‘ as the cutting of branches or stems of a tree between the branch unions. By comparison, correct pruning normally involves the cutting of branches back to a fork or branch union.
What is Lopping?
Lopping is the cutting of stems or branches to “stubs” or to lateral branches that are not large enough to assume their terminal role. The ‘lopping’ of a tree creates many more problems than it solves. Lopping often removes between 50-100% of a trees’ canopy. As a trees’ foliage is essential for food production, this kind of shock triggers new growth that is added to combat the shock the tree has suffered. This new growth is called epicormic or reaction growth.
The tree needs to produce a new crop of leaves as soon as possible in order to continue to produce enough food to survive. If a tree does not have stored energy reserves to do this, it may die.
Trees that are stressed are vulnerable to insect and disease infestations, while large, open pruning wounds expose the sapwood and heartwood to decay and fungi.
The natural branching structure of a tree is a biological wonder. The act of lopping branches leaves ugly stubs and destroys the natural form of the tree.
Lopping is NOT cost effective
- If a tree survives, it will require pruning again much quicker than if pruned to Australian Standard 4373: 2007
- All epicormic growth will need to be removed in order to restore the tree to its former form.
- Lopped trees are prone to failure and can be hazardous: since lopping is considered to be an unacceptable pruning practice (see Australia Standard AS 4373-2007; Pruning of Amenity Trees), any damage caused by branch failure of a lopped tree may lead to a finding of negligence in a court of law.
- Disfigured, lopped trees are ugly and can affect the look of your property and potentially causing a reduction in the reduction in property value. Healthy, well-maintained trees can add 10-15% to the value of a property.
Lopping creates hazardous unsafe trees
The survival mechanism that causes a tree to produce epicormic shoots presents further problems. The shoots develop from buds near the surface of the old branches.
Unlike normal branches that develop in a socket of overlapping wood tissues, the new shoots are anchored only on the outermost layers of the parent branches.
- The new shoots grow very quickly, often as much as 3-4 meters in one year in some species. Unfortunately, the shoots are prone to failure, especially during windy conditions.
- Ironically, while the goal was to reduce the tree’s height in order to make it safer, lopping has severely increased the risk of failure.
Lopping may lead to decay
The preferred location to make a pruning cut is just beyond the branch collar at the branches’ point of attachment. The tree is biologically equipped to occlude this kind of wound over time, provided the tree has sufficient vitality, and the wound is not too large.
A cut made mid-way along a branch or halfway up the stem creates “stubs” with wounds that the tree may not be able to close. Exposed heartwood may begin to decay. Few trees can successfully defend the multiple severe wounds caused by lopping.
Lopping may lead to sunburn.
Branches within a tree’s crown produce thousands of leaves to absorb sunlight. When the leaves are removed, the remaining branches and trunk are suddenly exposed to high levels of light and heat, the result of which may be sunburn of the tissues beneath the bark.
This can lead to the formation of cankers; bark splitting; branch failure and death of some branches.
Tree Loppers are often untrained and not educated in correct pruning techniques; they are therefore not able to make informed decisions about your trees. Tree lopping is often sold as a “quick fix” for tree problems but this creates far more problems than it fixes.
Alternatives to Lopping.
Pruning or canopy reduction of a tree is sometimes unavoidable.
There are recommended techniques for performing this work (see Australia Standard AS 4373-2007; Pruning of Amenity Trees). If a branch must be shortened, it should be cut back to the lateral that is large enough to assume the terminal role.
A guideline for this is generally to cut back to a lateral branch that is at least 1/3 the diameter of the limb being removed. This method of branch reduction should ideally retain the natural form of the tree.
Pruning large trees can be extremely dangerous
If pruning involves working above the ground or using power equipment, You should always hire a fully Qualified and Insured Arborist if pruning involves working above the ground or using power equipment. A Qualified Arborist can quickly determine what type of pruning is necessary to improve the health, appearance, and safety of your trees.
As with all trades and professions, there are different levels of qualification for operators and consultants.
If you are employing a consultant, they must be qualified to AQF (Australian Qualification Framework) Level 5 Diploma in Arboriculture. If you want a tree removal or professional pruning services, your Arborist must be qualified to the minimum AQF Level 3 in Arboriculture.
When selecting an Arborist, please check that they have:
ofa professional organisation, such as QAA (Queensland Arboricultural Association).
- AQF level 3 in Arboriculture (as specified in the Australian Standard referred to above)
- Proof of a current Public Liability Insurance
- A list of references from previous clients.
Avoid using the services of a tree a company that:
- Uses lopping as a technique
- Does not have Public Liability Insurance
- Does not hold professional qualifications
For more information on Tree Pruning and Tree Lopping, or to book an appointment to get your trees taken care of, please visit our Tree Pruning & Lopping Page.